School Datebooks Presents This Week In History: August 21, 1911

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August 21, 1911 – The Mona Lisa is stolen by a Louvre employee. It was recovered 27 months later.

 Louis Béroud was a painter who walked into the Louvre the next day to visit the painting, but found instead only four metal pegs. He then contacted the guards, who thought that the painting was being photographed at the time for publicity. After checking with the marketing section of the museum,  it was clear that the painting was missing, and the Louvre closed for a full week to investigate. 

During the investigation, French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who had made arson threats to the museum before, became a suspect and was put into a jail. Apollinaire attempted to bring his friend, Pablo Picasso, into the affair, but both were later exonerated. 

The painting was believed to be lost forever and it was more than two years later before the true culprit was found. His name was Vincenzo Peruggia, an Italian Louvre employee, who had stolen it during regular hours and had hidden it in his coat after walking out after closing time. Peruggia was an Italian patriot who thought that the painting should be returned to Italy, the home of the painter Leonardo da Vinci.

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School Datebooks Presents This Week In History: August 13, 1899

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August 13, 1899 – English-born film director Alfred Hitchcock was born.

Hitchcock was often nicknamed as The Master of Suspense, as he pioneered film techniques such as suspense and the psychological thriller genres. He also was known for mimicking a person's gaze by using the camera to capture a form of voyeurism in his films.

He framed shots to maximize fear, anxiety, and empathy: an innovative approach to film editing at the time. Hitchcock moved to Hollywood after successful year in British cinema in 1939 and later produced many astounding films such as Psycho, Vertigo, and The Birds.

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School Datebooks Presents This Week In History: August 6, 1991

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August 6, 1991 – British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his World Wide Web project, a hypertext system allowing documents to “link” easily to each other.

 On March 12, 1989, he wrote a proposal for what would eventually become the World Wide Web, that was meant for a more effective CERN communication system, the organization where Berners-Lee was employed. He soon discovered that the concept could be implemented throughout the world. Berners-Lee and a computer scientist named Robert Cailliau from Belgium proposed to use hypertext "to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will". In 1990, Berners-Lee finished the first website in December. 

To learn more about Berners-Lee and his innovations, visit this link. 

School Datebooks Presents This Week In History: July 28, 1868

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This Week In History: July 28, 1868 - The 14th amendment is officially adopted into the U.S. Constitution, granting citizenship to former slaves and all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. 

The amendment addressed citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the Civil War. The amendment was very controversial, particularly in the South, where southern states were forced to ratify it in order for them to regain representation in Congress. The Fourteenth Amendment is one of the most appealed parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such asRoe v. Wade (1973), regarding abortion, and Bush v. Gore (2000), regarding the 2000 presidential election

To learn more, visit this link. 

School Datebooks Presents This Week In History: July 21, 1861

July 21, 1861 – Union and Confederate troops clash outside Manassas, VA, in the first major engagement of the Civil War, the First Battle of Bull Run.

The battle began when the 35,000 Union soldiers marched from Washington, D.C. to the 20,000 strong Confederate army along a river known as Bull Run. After battling for most of the day, the rebels were able to rally and break through the Union's defenses, sending the leaders into a retreat towards Washington.

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This victory gave the Confederates hope, and instilled a fear in the Union soldiers and supporters that the war would not end easily or quickly.

Learn more by visiting this link.

School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: July 14, 1789

July 14, 1789 – Parisian revolutionaries and mutinous troops storm and dismantle the Bastille, a royal fortress that had come to symbolize the tyranny of the Bourbon monarchs.

The prison only contained seven prisoners at the time, but was used as a symbol of the abuses of the monarchy. This led to the eventual fall of the French government and the starting point of the French Revolution. 

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Source here. 

Today, every July 14 is known as Bastille Day in France, and is similar to the American's Fourth of July. French people attend a military parade and often fireworks shows. Many other counties also hold Bastille Day celebrations in communities where French immigrants populations are large.  

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School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: July 9, 1893

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July 9, 1893 – Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performed one of the earliest cardiac surgeries when he replaced a patient’s pericardium at Chicago’s Provident Hospital.

Black doctors were not allowed to work in Chicago hospitals during the time that he graduated from medical school. As a result, in 1891, Williams started the Provident Hospital and training school for nurses in Chicago.  

In the 1890's, there were many attempts to perform a surgery of this kind. Williams performed one of the first successful operations on James Cornish, a knife wound patient.

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School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: July 1, 1863

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July 1, 1863 – The largest military conflict in North American history begins when Union and Confederate troops collide at Gettysburg.

This battle was considered a turning point for both sides, and involved the most casualties of the entire war. The initial contact occurred on July 1, and by July 2 most of the armies were assembled and had started the battle.

 After three days of heavy assaults on the Confederates, Robert E. Lee led his remaining men to retreat back to Virginia.

The two armies suffered between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties.

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School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: June 25, 1876

June 25, 1876 – The Battle of Little Big Horn (Custer’s Last Stand) took place near Little Bighorn River, Montana. The Sioux Nation killed more than 200 of Custer’s forces. The only survivor was a horse named Comanche.

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The battle was fought between the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes against the United States Army. Tensions were high between these groups because of the encroaching settlers. The tribes were losing land and tried to resist being placed in reservations. This led to the Sioux Wars and eventually the Battle of Little Big Horn. 

Because the U.S. Army made some assumptions about the tribes, the tribes won the battle by an overwhelming victory. Led by leaders such as Crazy Horse, the tribes effectively duped the troops, leaving the horse of Captain Keogh as the only survivor.

School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: June 17, 1885

The Statue of Liberty. Source here.

The Statue of Liberty. Source here.

June 17, 1885 –The Statue of Liberty arrived in New York City. It was a gift of friendship from the French. 

The statue was designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi and stands at 151 feet 1 inch. The statue is a robed female, designed after the Roman goddess of freedom, Libertas, who also bears a torch and a tablet of law. A broken chain lies at her feet, signifying a state of being free.

In 1984, the statue was made into a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The UNESCO "Statement of Significance" describes the site as a "masterpiece of the human spirit"  that inspires ideals such as "liberty, peace, human rights, abolition of slavery, democracy and opportunity." 

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School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: June 15, 1215

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June 15, 1215 – King John sealed the Magna Carta. Regarded as the first charter of English liberties, it’s one of the most important documents in the history of political and human freedom.

The Magna Carta was the first document made to try to limit the powers of the King of England and protect the rights of ordinary citizens. Despite its importance to the people at the time, by the second half of the 19th century, most of the clauses had been repealed.

The clauses that are still in use include Clause 1, Clause 9, and Clause 29: the freedom of the English Church, the "ancient liberties" of London, and a right to due process.

For more information, visit this resource.

 

School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: June 4, 1989

June 4, 1989 – Following a month and a half of student protests for democracy, the Chinese government ordered its troops to open fire on the unarmed protesters at Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

Student-led demonstrations took place in Beijing's Tienanmen Square, to expose China's political corruption. Government leaders suppressed these demonstrations, and ultimately ordered the military to use assault rifles and tanks to stop the unarmed students from protesting.

The protesters called for the end to government corruption, freedom of press, freedom of speech and the restoration of workers' control over growing industry. 

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Because the Chinese government continues to suppress information about the massacre, the official death toll count is still disputed. Estimates range from 400 to 1000 people who lost their lives that day. 

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School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: May 27, 1937

This Week in History: On May 27, 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge opened in San Francisco, California. About 200,000 people walked across the bridge on that first day.

The bridge has been declared by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the wonders of the modern world, in line with the Panama Canal, Channel Tunnel, and the Empire State Building. According to Frommer's travel guide, the bridge is considered "possibly the most beautiful, certainly most photographed bridge in the world."

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For more information, click this link. 

http://goldengatebridge.org/research/facts.php

School Datebooks Presents This Week in History: May 22, 2011

On May 22, 2011, Joplin, Missouri, was hit by an EF-5, multiple-vortex tornado, killing 158 and causing $3 billion in damages.


This year the final high school class to have suffered through the tornado will graduate after relocating schools multiple times after the disaster. Despite the hardships, Joplin's students overcame adversity and became more united through their shared pasts. Graduate Jonathan Ponce said to the Joplin Globe, "After the tornado, our whole class just came together. Throughout high school, we just stuck together and now we are graduating together." 


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